Syllabus design needs analysis american university courses

Needs are often described in terms of language needs. The term needs sometimes used to refer to wants, desires, demands, expectations, motivations, lacks, constraints, and requirements. Needs are often described in terms of a linguistic deficiency, that is, as describing the difference between what a learner can presently do in a language and what he or she should be able to do.

Needs analysis is directed mainly at the goals and content of a course. It examines what the learners know already and what they need to know. Needs analysis makes sure that the course will contain relevant and useful things to learn. Good needs analysis involves asking the right questions and fi nding the answers in the most e ff ective way. American university acceptance rate the purpose of a needs analysis

In other cases, learners’ needs may not be so immediate — for example, students learning english as a secondary school subject in an ESL context.

Here english may be a compulsory subject that is considered an important part of a child’s general education. List of best universities however, even though the students may not have any immediate perceptions of needs, curriculum planners will generally have consulted employers, parents, teachers, and others to find out what knowledge of english they expect highschool graduates to achieve. In many countries, the introduction of english or another foreign language in elementary or secondary school is based on what curriculum planners consider best for students to study at school in the same way that math, history, and physical education are included in the school currirninm learners are not consulted as to whether they perceive a need for such knowledge. Their needs have been decided for them by those concerned with their long term welfare. The users of need analysis

The target population in a needs analysis refers to the people about whom information will be collected. Typically, in language programs these will be language learners or potential language learners, but others are also often involved depending on whether they can provide information useful in meeting the purposes of the needs analysis. For example, in conducting a needs analysis to determine the focus of an english program in public secondary schools in an EFL context, the target population might include:

A variety of procedures can be used in conducting needs analysis and that kind of information obtained is often dependent on the type of procedure selected. Since any one source of information is likely to be incomplete or partial, a triangular approach (i.E., collecting information from two or more source) is advisable. Many different sources of information should be sought. For example, when a needs analysis of the writing problems encountered by foreign students enrolled in american universities is conducted, information could be obtained from the following sources:

Questionnaires are one of the most common instruments used. Best universities psychology they are relatively easy to prepare, they can be used with large numbers of subjects, and they obtain information that is relatively easy to tabulate and analyze. They can also be used to elicit information about many different kinds of-issues, such as language use, communication difficulties, preferred learning styles, preferred classroom activities, and attitudes and beliefs.

Interviews: allow for a more in-depth exploration of issues than is possible with a questionnaire, though they take longer to administer and are only feasible for smaller groups. An interview may often be useful at the preliminary stage of designing a questionnaire, since it will help the designer get a sense of what topics and issues can be focused on in the questionnaire. Best universities in illinois A structured interview in which a set series of questions is used allows more consistency across responses to be obtained. Interviews can be conducted face-to-face or over the telephone.

Meetings: A meeting allows a large amount of information to be collected in a fairly short time. For example, a meeting of teachers on the topic “students’ problems with listening comprehension” might generate a wide range of ideas. However, information obtained in this way may be impressionistic and sub-jective and reflect the ideas of more outspoken members of a group.

Observations of learners’ behavior in a target situation is another way of as-sessing their needs. For example, observing clerks performing their jobs in a bank will enable the observer to arrive at certain conclusions about their language needs. However, people-often do not perform well when they are being ob-served, so this has to be taken into account. In addition, observation is a spe-cialized skill. Knowing how to observe, what to look for, and how to make use of the information obtained generally requires specialized training.